My first negative encounters with the "totalitarian model" came Job Function Email List from my archival work in the ussr . That was before I went to the United States, in the early 1970s. However, when I settled there, the question became more important to me because Soviet Job Function Email List studies in the United States were then dominated by political scientists whose favorite model was that of totalitarianism. It was a highly politicized field in the Cold War, and the "totalitarianism model" – based on the idea of the essential similarity between the Soviet system and that of Nazi Germany – served not only Job Function Email List academic but also political ends. My decision to make "history from below.
Came not during my first research period in the Soviet Job Function Email List Union, but after I moved to the USA .. That reflected, first of all, what was happening in professional historiography as a whole. They were all heading toward social history, which had Job Function Email List been quantitative, but was now becoming more qualitative. Doing social history then was like doing cultural history in the 1990s: everyone was drawn to it. In the Soviet case, there was an additional issue. If history was Job Function Email List written considering that everything came "from above", making history was very easy:
You could read all the official declarations, the resolutions of the Job Function Email List Central Committee, the laws of the Council of Ministers and say: "Perfect, this is what has passed". If, for example, someone was interested in the peasantry, he could read all the laws and Job Function Email List resolutions relating to the peasantry and deduce the real situation.ussr . As I rather cynically realized later, laws and instructions were often more useful to the social historian because of a kind of reverse reading: they told you how the authorities wanted things to be, not how they were; and his prohibition lists Job Function Email List were often an excellent guide to the kinds of practices that were common in real life.